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L.M. Kuznetsova, Cand. Sc. (Med.), psychophysiologist


The treatment of cerebral diseases by Prof. A.P. Khokhlov's method practiced at the "Primavera Medica" Center is performed according to special schemes selected for each individual patient. The dynamics of clinical manifestations is thereby monitored not only by generally accepted neurologic diagnostic methods but is confirmed by statistic indices of psychophysiologic studies as well.


Psychophysiologic studies and the computer-assisted diagnosis of mental dysfunctions in cerebropathologic patients are based on recent advances in neurophysiology, psychology and psycholinguistics. An original "PPHY" computer system designed for a quick diagnostis of psychophysiological indices in children and adults includes 16 tests united to a comprehensive system. The set of psychophysiologic methods allows to determine:

short visual (image and symbol) and aural memory with memory rate estimate;

attention (volume, shifting, selectivity, tension);

sensomotor response to sound, light (simple, complex, differentiated), to a moving object;

motor activity of hands and tremor of hands with tremor integral rate estimate;

intelligence (Wechsler test).
A quick assessment of vegetative components of psychoemotional tension is conducted on a small-size "MIR-21" microprocessor: stress level tension, overtension and exhaustion are determined by cardiodynamic indicators using a mathematical processing method (R.M. Bayevsky).

A computer version of a short preliminary "KOT" test is used to determine general intellectual abilities: flexibility, inertia, shifting of thinking, ability to generalize and analyze material, spatial thinking, etc., that is, the "critical points" of intelligence are investigated.

The psychoemotional state and anxiety level are defined by computer versions of SAN, Spielberg-Hanin and Taylor tests.

Diagnoses of mental development disorders in children with cerebral pathology are made by means of a set of object and image materials called the "Lilia" diagnostic case (O.N. Usanova). The set comprises 25 methods allowing to quantitatively and qualitatively study different forms of thinking (illustration-action, illustration-image, verbal-logic forms). The main distinctive feature of the above methods consists in applying the principle of qualitative analysis of developmental peculiarities or disturbances. The analysis of how the child accomplishes the task assigned allows to clarify whether a given effect is manifested at the elementary level or whether it is associated with disorders of mental activity of a higher level; it also reveals whether a given symptom represents a primary disturbance or is a secondary consequence of the primary defect.

The psychophysiologic and somatovegetative state of patients with cerebral pathology is diagnosed in its dynamics in various stages of specific therapy.


Among 520 patients examined so far the majority (48%) suffer from infantile cerebral palsy and 29% from oligophrenia. Prior to treatment the psychophysiologic state of these patients is characterized by a low speed of sensomotor reactions, reduced intelligence, disturbed movements, low memory rate, poor ability to concentrate attention, increased anxiety, poor general condition, low spirits, decreased activity and poor work performance as well as by limited adaptation ability of the organism as manifested in the form of low stress resistance.

A positive dynamics in a number of diagnosed indices was recorded in one third of patients already after the first course of treatment (during 5-6 weeks) and in 50-60% after the second and third course. In this instance there was a trustworthy increase in sensomotor speed reaction (from 493.1+23.1 to 353.6+24.8 in ICP patients and from 579.1+25.6 to 422.7+24.2 in oligophrenic children); there was a larger rate of short-term visual memory (from 47.5+5.0% to 68.1+6.8% in children with ICP and from 42.0+5.3% to 62.0+6.4% in children with oligophrenia) and short-term aural memory (from 50.0+7.4% to 61.3+5.9% in children with ICP and 34.0+6.2% to 54.6+6.3% in children with oligophrenia); greater volume and stability of voluntary attention was also registered (from 4.0+1.4 to 10.0+4.0 in ICP children and from 4.7+2.2 to 11.0+3.3 in children with oligophrenia); minor movements of hands were formed.

An improvement of visual-motor coordination and formation of perceptive modelling in children with ICP and oligophrenia under the influence of metabolic therapy are indicative of an on-going development of their higher mental functions, such as perception and imagination. In their turn, these functions contribute to the development of abstract-logical thinking at the audio-visual and verbal level, that is, they promote an increase in the intelligence level.

The positive therapeutic effect is shown in this category of children in the form of disappearance or reduction of the intensity of neurotic disorders and psychoemotional tension; behavioral reactions return to normalcy. It was also found that the elimination of clinical symptoms is accompanied by a decreased stress level in the patients (r=0.9).

Children with the deficient attention syndrome represent a particular category among children with insufficient functions of the central nervous system; more frequently, this insufficiency is of residual-organic nature. The prevalent symptoms of the deficient attention syndrome are inattention, distractability, impulsiveness, hyperactivity and motor awkwardness that do not correspond to the age of the child's development. Frequently, these symptoms are accompanied by emotional lability, irritability and behavioral disorders. An accurate diagnosis of deficient attention syndrome disturbances in children is made by means of the above-mentioned computer-assisted psychophysiologic methods. Using the Schulte test that determines the stability and shifting of voluntary attention, we follow up the effect of the so-called "pulsating attention"; applying the Münstenberg test, low interference resistance, weak selectiveness and low concentration of attention are typically recorded

Under the influence of metabolic therapy, diminished hyperactivity, normalized behaviour and increased attention were recorded in children with the deficient attention syndrome already after the 1st and 2nd course of treatment (from 48.3+7.8% to 63.7+9.4%); stability and shifting attention are increased which is expressed by a more rapid completion of the Schulte test (from 129.7+12.0 to 86.7+9.7 sec.).


The treatment by A.P. Khokhlov's method that essentially consists in the use of amino acid compounds is conducted at the "Primavera Medica" Modern Medicine Center under an additional monitoring of physiologic and psychologic functions. The nature of the effect and the dosage of medications are selected individually depending on the neurological and psychophysiologic condition of the patient.

The dynamic observation of psychophysiologic indices determined by the most advanced computer diagnosis methods has shown that already after the first 4-6-week course of metabolic therapy, in addition to a positive dynamics in the clinical picture of the main disease, indicators of strength and mobility of nervous processes have improved, that is, visual and aural sensomotor reactions are accelerated, memory and attention indices enhanced and positive changes occurred in the intellectual activity of the great majority of patients.

Follow-up treatment courses allow to improve and stabilize the positive results obtained in psychophysiological parameters. Complete rehabilitation of patients with cerebral pathology is possible, however, provided comprehensive measures aimed at psychologic, logopedic and locomotor correction are taken simultaneously. Here, the age of the child remains the main factor that may limit the efficacy of therapeutical and rehabilitation procedures: the younger the child the faster will be achieved a positive treatment effect and the more realistic will be the child's sociopsychologic rehabilitation.

REFERENCES (in Russian)

Khokhlov, A.P., Dotsenko, A.N., Tarakanov, O.P., Fomicheva, G.N., Petukhova L.M. Psychophysiologic and electroencephalographic characteristics of handicapped children following the treatment with amino acids. Neurophysiologic principles of the formation of psychic functions in normality and developmental abnormalities. M., 1955, pp. 64-65.

Khokhlov, A.P., Tarakanov, O.P., Dotsenko A.N. New method of stress reduction in handicapped children. Anthropogenic effects and the health of man. Kaluga, 1995, p. 113.

Khokhlov, A.P., Tarakanov, O.P., Dotsenko A.N. Comprehensive method of stress reduction in handicapped children. Adaptation of the organism in stress situations. Anapa, 1995, pp. 165-166.